What is Splanchnocranium?
1. Area of skull including sensory capsules
2. Are of skull including jaws derived from mandibular arch
3. Area of skull derived from hyoid arch
4. Area of skull including brain box and jaws
a) enriching of local flora and fauna with species from other geographical territories;
b) domestic (domesticised) animal;
c) organisms transferred by man from original territories;
d) animals and plants living in close relationship with man.
Mainak Majumder Jun 6th, 2018
d. animals and plants living in close relationship with man
"Synanthrope" is generally an undomesticated organism and especially an animal (such as a mouse, pigeon, or raccoon) that lives in close association with people and benefits from their surroundings and activities
Which of the following contributes nitrogen atoms to both Purine and Pyrimidine?
b. Carbamoyl Phosphate
Nucleotide biosynthesis in the cell can be grouped into two broad classes:
(1) de-novo synthesis and
(2) synthesis by salvage pathways.
I. De-novo synthesis (synthesis from scratch): it is a biochemical pathway in which nucleotides are synthesized new from simple precursor molecules.
II. Salvage pathway (recycle pathway): used to recover bases and nucleosides formed during the degradation of RNA and DNA
De-novo synthesis of purines:
The purine nucleotides of nucleic acids are adenosine 5-monophosphate (AMP; adenylate) and guanosine 5-monophosphate (GMP; guanylate), containing the purine bases adenine and guanine respectively. The first idea about purine nucleotide biosynthesis in the cell was come from the study of John Buchanan (1948) by radioactive tracer studies in birds by analyzing the biochemistry of uric acid (a purine present in the excreta of birds). The detailed biosynthetic pathways of the purine biosynthesis came latter in 1950 primarily by the works of Buchanan and G. Robert Greenberg.
Lipotropic factors are components that describe the action of Choline in the prevention and treatment of fatty livers. Lipotropic factors are produced naturally in the body. They are substances that have the ability to remove and prevent fatty deposits, such as Homocysteine, in the body.
The precursor to melatonin is serotonin, a neurotransmitter that itself is derived from the amino acid tryptophan. Within the pineal gland, serotonin is acetylated and then methylated to yield melatonin.
Serotonin and melatonin are both hormones that regulate various human functions such as sleep, appetite and mood. Serotonin, which is produced in the body, is known as a neurotransmitter; this means it is responsible for sending messages between nerve cells. Melatonin is a neurotransmitterlike substance that plays a vital role in regulating circadian rhythms, which in turn control sleeping patterns, hormone release and body temperature, among many other human functions.
Key Diferences between Melatonin and serotonin:
While serotonin has many important functions in the body, it may be most known for its role as a “feel good” hormone. Increased levels of serotonin are associated with feelings of happiness and relaxation. Low serotonin levels, on the other hand, are linked to weakened immune function and depression. Melatonin is most noted for its role as a sleep hormone. It is produced in the pineal gland in the brain when it's dark outside -- thus its nickname, “the hormone of darkness.” Deficiencies in this hormone can cause sleeplessness, among many other side-effects.
Melatonin is used as a treatment for insomnia, delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS), jet lag and insomnia associated with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is also used for other conditions, including chronic fatigue, depression, irritable bowel syndrome and anti-aging, though there is no scientific evidence supporting these uses. Serotonin-affecting compounds are primarily used as treatments for depression. Prescription drugs known as selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) stop serotonin from being reabsorbed, which elevates serum serotonin levels and can improve depression symptoms. Too much serotonin can also cause problems. Serotonin syndrome is a life-threatening condition that can occur when more than one drug that affects serotonin levels is ingested.